Simulating Changes in Altitude using Equilibar Vacuum Regulators

  • Equilibar schematic altitude simulation

Altitude Simulation Regulator


Altitude Simulation Chamber precision to +/- 30 feet

Altitude test chambers are used by many different industries to simulate the conditions of varying atmospheric pressure, temperature, and humidity. For example, automotive performance and emissions must be documented for various altitudes. High altitude simulation chambers are also required to test pilot masks and other cockpit equipment. Recently, athletes have begun training in altitude chambers simulating the low-oxygen conditions found in mountainous regions to build stronger blood oxygen capacity.

For small to medium chambers, manual vacuum regulators with manual adjustment knobs have been used successfully for decades. However, these units are typically available in sizes 1/2″ or smaller. For larger sizes, flow control valves have traditionally been used with relatively slower acting PID control loops. However, for these larger chambers, achieving good precision has typically been difficult. Pressure control to +/- 500 feet in altitude has been considered typical.

For testing human exhalation in high altitude chambers, for example, there is a real challenge from the massive volumetric expansion of the air flow from exhalation into the low pressure chamber. By way of illustration, a human exhalation at 30 standard Liter/minute at pressurized mask pressure would explode into 600 actual liters/minutes at the low absolute pressure found at high altitude. Small 1/2″ pressure regulators are unable to precisely handle flow rates in the larger volume systems.

And while large PID-controlled flow control valves are able to handle extremely large flow rates, they are unable to adjust to sudden flow changes, such as from a normal exhalation cycle. All of the factors contribute to the relative imprecision that operators of altitude simulation chambers have traditionally coped with.

Greatly improved precision at high flow rates

schematic of altitude simulation chamber or altitude test chamber

Equilibar has recently demonstrated a high precision altitude simulation regulator which dramatically increases the accuracy and stability of large test chambers. The dome-loaded vacuum regulator uses a precision set-point signal from a high speed electronic pressure regulator. The direct-sealing diaphragm regulator translates the small pressure signal from the electronic pressure regulator 1:1 to the much larger air flow coming from the test chamber.

Results in a large high altitude simulation chamber operated by a large military agency reveals an incredible precision of +/- 10 to 30 feet of altitude resolution, even with varying flow rates in open-loop control. Users may use a closed-loop feedback mechanism for further resolution if needed.

Altitude Simulation Chamber Schematic

In the schematic above, a vacuum pump is throttled by the Equilibar precision vacuum regulator as part of a computer control system. The supervisory computer or PLC contains a PID control loop which makes fine adjustments as necessary to the set-point command to the I/P (electronic pressure regulator) until the altimeter (PT) closes to its desired setting. Unlike with PID flow control valves, the response of the Equilibar to sudden changes in flow is nearly instantaneous (few milli-seconds), compared with several seconds for a typical flow control valve loop. The PID is used only as an optional method to enhance precision and not required for the basic functionality of the system.

If rapid decreases in altitude are required, additional in-flow of air (or gas) is provided through a small solenoid valve. The pressure is maintained in tight control at all times by the larger capacity of the Equilibar vacuum regulator.

The patented Equilibar back pressure regulator technology is unique in its ability to translate this precision into high vacuum flow streams. By using thin, supple diaphragms, the result is pressure control with zero hysteresis and sensitivity to pressure changes well less than 1 mBar.

The Equilibar QPV electronic pressure regulator is ideal for producing the 1:1 pressure signal for our vacuum regulator due to its lack of hysteresis and its extraordinarily high resolution. Together, the QPV and precision vacuum regulator complement each other to deliver resolution as high as +/- 10 feet (+/- 3 meters).

The QPV is available in either gauge or absolute pressure versions. If the user’s control system already references a high quality altimeter, the use of an absolute pressure sensor is not necessary. However, for simpler installations, the use of an absolute pressure sensor can easily eliminate the effect of changes in barometric pressure on the chamber’s altitude.

Learn more about Equilibar’s vacuum regulators.

Contact our engineers to discuss your unique application.

typical aircraft altimeter also showing mBardata from altitude simulation chamber, including alitude in feet and meters, pressure in mBar, temperature in degrees C, and relativey humidity

Data typically collected and controlled by automated barometric test chambers and altitude simulation chambers.

Equilibar altitude simulation regulator for altitude simulation chambers

3″ Equilibar Vacuum Regulator provides unmatched sensitivity and precision for controlling altitude simulation chamber pressure. Details

Flow Control Magazine article featurign Equilibar's altitude simulation regualtor

Equilibar’s vacuum regulators are featured in a Flow Control Magazine article  outlining improvements to the US Navy’s altitude simulation laboratory.

Equilibar vacuum regulator brochure

Work Categories

Equilibar News

Assembly Technician Andrew Roberts

Team Member Spotlight: Andrew Roberts, Assembly Technician

We are happy to introduce Andrew Roberts, our amazing assembly technician, who is able to build seemingly infinite configurations of Equilibar back pressure regulators and vacuum control valves. Long-time clients and partners may remember Andrew.  He worked for Equilibar several years ago before taking a break to join the thriving beer brewing industry in Western […]

Read More